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Firing-Pattern-Dependent Specificity of Cortical Excitatory …

The cortical circuit includes networks of highly interconnected pyramidal neurons. Here, we investigated whether pyramidal cells form subnetworks depending on …

Frontiers | Monoaminergic Modulation of Motor …

Elaboration of appropriate responses to behavioral situations rests on the ability of selecting appropriate motor outcomes in accordance to specific environmental inputs. To this end, the primary motor cortex (M1) is a …

Differential responsivity of neurons in perirhinal cortex, …

Single-unit firing in rat perirhinal cortex caused by fear conditioning to arbitrary and ecological stimuli. J Neurosci 27, 12277–12291. [PMC free article] [Google Scholar] Furtak SC, Wei SM, Agster KL, and Burwell RD (2007b). Functional neuroanatomy of the parahippocampal region in the rat: the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices.

Sequential Neural Activity in Primary Motor Cortex during …

Sequential firing of neurons during sleep is thought to play a role in the consolidation of learning. However, direct evidence for such sequence replay is limited to only a few brain areas and sleep states mainly in rodents. Using a custom-designed wearable neural data logger and chronically implanted electrodes, we made long-term …

Neuronal firing rates diverge during REM and homogenize …

Within REM, firing rate changes were similar across quintiles and the CV did not change significantly (Fig. 1B,E,F ). Upon the transition from REM to NREM, firing …

Monoaminergic Modulation of Motor Cortex Function

Subcortical loops regulate the activity of the motor cortex and thus contribute to the selection of appropriate motor plans. Monoamines are key mediators of arousal, …

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The rustic look and craft design of the fireplace toolset would be perfect goods for your Christmas. Constructed from steel,the tool sets includes a base,a tong,a fireplace poker, a shovel and a brush for all your fire tending needs .This tool sets is processed with spray-painting technology in rust-resistance, the corrosion-resistance and durability.

Corten Steel Fireplaces: A Must-Have Home Feature for …

1.Material: Corten steel is used to construct the fireplace due to its unique properties. When exposed to the atmosphere, the outer layer of corten steel develops a stable, rust-like appearance, which acts as a protective barrier against further corrosion. This allows the fireplace to withstand the outdoor elements and ensures its durability.

Progress and challenges for understanding the function …

In the auditory cortex, a combination of large-scale electrophysiological recordings and concurrent optogenetic manipulations are improving our understanding of the role of inhibitory–excitatory ...

Frontiers | The mechanisms for pattern completion and …

The mechanisms for pattern completion and pattern separation are described in the context of a theory of hippocampal function in which the hippocampal CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network to enable rapid, one-trial, associations between any spatial location (place in rodents, or spatial view in primates) …

The mechanisms for pattern completion and pattern separation …

Pattern separation is performed in the dentate granule cells using competitive learning to convert grid-like entorhinal cortex firing to place-like fields. Pattern separation in CA3, which is important for completion of any one of the stored patterns from a fragment, is provided for by the randomizing effect of the mossy fiber synapses to which ...

Distinct Firing Patterns of Neuronal Subtypes in Cortical …

Abstract. Cortical neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, are composed of very diverse subtypes. It remains to be investigated whether each subtype …

Prefrontal cortex modulates firing pattern in the nucleus …

Abstract. The thalamus has long been recognized for its role in relaying sensory information from the periphery, a function accomplished by its "first-order" nuclei. However, a …

Discussion WEEK 10

Nitz; Week 10 danielle notes discussion week 10 motor control population code: population firing rate vector pattern single neurons in brain have little

Neuronal firing rates diverge during REM and …

Within REM, firing rate changes were similar across quintiles and the CV did not change significantly (Fig. 1B,E,F ). Upon the transition from REM to NREM, firing rates initially dropped in all ...

Frontiers | Neural Burst Firing and Its Roles in Mental and

Neurons in a variety of brain areas, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, cortex, and hippocampus, display burst firing, but the ionic mechanisms that generating …

Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral

Bursting cholinergic neurons (Burst-BFCNs) fired synchronously, phase-locked to cortical theta activity and fired precisely timed bursts after reward and …

Persistent hippocampal neural firing and hippocampal …

Within the MTL, we identified different roles for neuronal firing in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala during the different task periods. Encoding . First, during encoding, hippocampal population firing predicted whether subjects later responded correctly or incorrectly (Fig. 4D).

Increased Threshold and Reduced Firing Rate of Auditory Cortex …

The responses of auditory cortex neurons were determined before and after the insertion of a 300 µm diameter CI (six stimulating electrodes, length 6 mm). Immediately after CI insertion there was a 5 to 15 dB increase in the threshold for cortical neurons from the middle to the high frequencies, accompanied by a decrease in the evoked firing rate.

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Persistent hippocampal neural firing and hippocampal …

Within the MTL, we identified different roles for neuronal firing in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala during the different task periods. …

Persistent hippocampal neural firing and hippocampal …

At a systemic level, WM processing is known to correlate with sustained neuronal oscillations in the theta-alpha range (3 to 12 Hz) (5–11).The anatomical basis of WM involves a widespread network of brain areas, as shown noninvasively with electroencephalography (EEG) (5, 6, 10–12) and functional magnetic resonance imaging …

Relationship between Unconstrained Arm Movements …

The activity of single neurons in the monkey motor cortex was studied during semi-naturalistic, unstructured arm movements made spontaneously by the monkey and measured with a high resolution three-dimensional tracking system. We asked how much of the total neuronal variance could be explained by various models of neuronal tuning to …

Cortical pattern generation during dexterous movement is …

a, The dynamical systems model for motor cortical control of reaching (see Methods). b, Left, generation of firing-rate patterns r(t) if motor cortex were driven by …

The claustrum coordinates cortical slow-wave activity

The analysis of much finer temporal relationships between claustral firing and a single SW in the prefrontal cortex revealed that claustral neurons increased their firing just before SW in ...

Identifying what makes a neuron fire

With a fresh appreciation that sensory systems promote survival by extracting behaviourally relevant information about important (positive or negative) events in the surrounding world, in the last 20 or so years neuroscientists have begun to apply 'naturalistic stimuli': stimulus sets that contain innately meaningful features, for instance …

Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral …

To compare in vivo and in vitro firing patterns, we calculated ACGs and burst indices (early-firing, 0.64 ± 0.08; late-firing, −1.0 ± 0, 2.11 × 10 −12, two-sided Mann–Whitney U-test) from ...

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Identifying what makes a neuron fire

The neuron will fire with high probability whenever the presented stimulus is composed of the feature combination aligned with the bright white region of the ellipsoid; it will fire with lower probability in the dark‐shaded feature space shown on the figure. The investigators now present their chosen stimulus set – the tested feature space ...

Dissociated Pattern of Activity in Visual Cortices and Their

Comparison of REM sleep and waking scans (Fig.1A and Table1) revealed focal activations of the extrastriate (fusiform, inferotemporal, and lateral occipital) cortices during REM sleep, manifest in clusters of significant spatial extent in both hemispheres (). These clusters did not encompass the striate cortices (calcarine cortex and contiguous …

Frontiers | Neural Burst Firing and Its Roles in Mental and

Neural firing patterns are critical for specific information coding and transmission, and abnormal firing is implicated in a series of neural pathologies. Recent studies have indicated that enhanced burst firing mediated by T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (T-VGCCs) in specific neuronal subtypes is involved in several mental or …

Cortical neurons multiplex reward-related signals …

The ability to learn highly skilled movements may depend on the dopamine-related plasticity occurring in motor cortex, because the density of dopamine receptors—the reward sensor—increases in this area from …